Ecosystems Beyond Borders (WEBB)
An Environmental Curriculum for Wisconsin Students
Environmental and Societal Impacts in Wisconsin and the Democratic
Republic of the Congo
Subject Areas: Science and Social Studies
Length of Unit: Up to three weeks
The following unit helps students critically examine the issues
surrounding mining and mineral resources. Students will investigate
the Crandon Mine controversy in northeastern Wisconsin, and
contrast it with coltan mining in the Democratic Republic of the
Congo (DRC). Students will learn to assess the complications inherent
in mining, taking into account its environmental, economic, social,
cultural, scientific, and political aspects. The unit begins with
information and activities to help students gain a general understanding
of mining. After the introductory activities, students study the
Crandon mine controversy in depth. Students' understanding of this
local environmental issue will help them connect with a mining controversy
in the DRC. Students will explore the connection between the mining
of coltan (found in cell phones, laptops, and video game consoles) and
the funding of civil war. Students conclude the unit by using their
knowledge of mining in Wisconsin and the DRC to create a list of
international guidelines for mining that encourage environmental,
social, and economic sustainability.
students' awareness of environmental issues on both local and
- Foster understanding
of students' citizenship in local and global communities
students' awareness of world geography and global connections
Model Academic Standards Correlations
and Analysis: A.8.1, A.8.2, A.8.3, A.8.4, A.8.5, A.8.6
of Environmental Processes and Systems (Energy and Ecosystems):
B.8.5, B.8.9, B.8.10
of Environmental Processes and Systems (Natural Resources and
Environmental Quality): B.8.12, B.8.15, B.8.16, B.8.17, B.8.23
Issue Investigation Skills: C.8.1, C.8.3, C.8.4 · Decision and
Action Skills: D.8.1, D.8.2, D.8.4, D.8.8
- Students will:
different types of mined materials present in their classrooms
and homes, and determine where they came from, and the process
used to create them;
U.S. and international resource consumption;
an understanding of the mining process and present information
on one type of mine in a jigsaw activity;
and analyze a video about mining; · Observe the typical pattern
of natural resource depletion;
and analyze data and results.
a class brainstorm to assess what the students already know
about mining. Make a list of the ideas generated by the class.
the students guess what the building, furniture, and materials
in their classroom are made of. Divide the students into small
groups and assign each group one section of the classroom. Each
group should guess the type of material each item is made of
(wood, metal, plastic, glass, etc.), where it comes from, and
the process used to create it. Students should note this information
on a worksheet. Have the small groups present their guesses
to the whole class. While the students present, clarify any
misconceptions they have. Go over the correct answers in more
detail focusing on the materials that are mined. For homework,
have the students find five items in their home that consist
of mined materials and note the material, location, and process.
handout, produced by the Mineral Information Institute
(MII) to supplement the lesson.
the handout "Every
American Born Will Need . . ." produced by MII. Have
the students guess what the minerals are used for and where
they come from. Then hand out "Baby
Gains Nearly Half A Ton Last Year" and discuss how the
minerals are used and why consumption in the U.S. is increasing.
Then, compare U.S. consumption rates with those of other countries
the students have a general understanding of which materials
are mined, have the students learn more about the mining processes
through a "jigsaw" activity. Divide the students into small
groups. Assign each group a different type of mine, such as
shaft mine, slope mine, and open pit mine. Have each group become
"experts" on a different type of mine through reading and discussing.
Then have the students create new groups with at least one member
representing each type of mine. Have the students teach their
new group about their mine and take notes while other students
the video, Mining: Discoveries for Progress, produced by the
National Mining Association as a brief introduction to mining.
Follow the video with a class discussion. Use the following
questions to guide the students as they view and discuss the
video: Who produced the video? Why do you think they produced
this video? What facts did you learn? What message does the
video send? Do you think this is a fair depiction of mining?
Why or why not?
students to the effects that mining has on people and the environment.
The United Nations Environment Program and the Environmental
Literacy Council have overviews (see resources).
the students do a science lab on resource depletion. See Student
Handout #1 (available in the pdf version of this unit).
General information about mining and its impact on the environment
and links to other sites
Society of America
Safety and Health Administration
Introductory slideshow about mining and additional information
Lesson plans and information for teachers
Nations Environment Program
Information about the effect of mining on people and the environment
Lesson plans and general information
Discoveries for Progress, 10 min.
An overview of mining produced by the National Mining Association.
Video may be borrowed from the Wisconsin
Center for Environmental Education (WCEE).
mining videos compiled by P&H MinePro Services.
Mine, Forest County, Wisconsin
mine controversy has spanned more than two decades. It began
in 1976 when Exxon announced the discovery of zinc and copper
near Crandon, a city in northeastern Wisconsin. In the early
1980s, Exxon submitted applications to begin mining. The proposed
mine would be near the headwaters of the Wolf River in Forest
County. In 1986, Exxon withdrew their permit application, citing
depressed mineral prices. In 1994, interest was renewed in mining
at the site through Crandon Mining, a partnership between Exxon
and Rio Algom of Toronto. In 1998, the mining moratorium law
was passed. This law requires an applicant to provide an example
of a mining operation in the U.S. or Canada that has not resulted
in significant environmental pollution. Soon after, Rio Algom
bought Exxon's interest in the mine and renamed it Nicolet Minerals
Company (NMC). From 1998-2002 NMC was bought and sold by various
corporations. In April 2003, Northern Wisconsin Resource Group
bought NMC. Then, in October 2003, the Mole Lake Sokaogon (so-COG-in)
Chippewa and the Forest County Potawatomi (PAH-tah-WAH-to-mee)
purchased NMC and lands associated with the proposed project
site, and formally withdrew its permit applications. Opposed
to the mine from its beginning, these two Native American groups
stopped the mining project by buying it.
Mine Project was controversial from its inception. Some people
feared that sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the mine could
reach the Wolf River, polluting the water and threatening tourism,
an industry that plays a vital role in the region's economy.
Other people hoped the mine would bring hundreds of jobs to
a region that desperately needed them. The Sokaogon Chippewa
feared that the mine could pollute lakes where they gather rice,
threatening their way of life. The mining corporations claimed
that they could point to examples of successfully reclaimed
mines, therefore pollution of the surface and ground water was
not a concern. Additionally they said they would use a number
of controls to prevent pollution, including landfill liners
and mixing of waste rock with lime, a buffering compound, so
it would not become acidic. Yet opponents claim that there has
never been a successfully reclaimed sulfide mine and that the
pollution controls have not been proven effective. Opponents
also point to the over fifty sulfide mines listed as U.S. Superfund
Hazardous Waste Sites. A diverse coalition of over 50 interest
groups came together to stop the Crandon Mine and call for strict
regulation of mining in Wisconsin. Among the groups were the
Sokaogon Chippewa, the Menominee, angling and hunting organizations,
conservation groups, unionists, and rural and urban community
members. When the Sokaogon Chippewa and the Potawatomi bought
NMC, Wisconsin State Representative Spencer Black called it
"not just a victory for the environment - it was a victory for
the power of the people over the power of money" (Capital Times,
11/10/03). However, Peter Connor, a member of the family that
last sold NMC, stated "By regulating this project out of existence,
our local governments will remain poor and high-paying mine
jobs will never be created. Officials in Madison can sleep well,
but Forest County has lost millions of dollars" (Wisconsin State
Gedicks 1996, Connor 2003, Black 2003)
and label political and physical features of Crandon Mine
a timeline of Wisconsin mining history;
a general understanding of the plant/animal life and geological
history of the Crandon region;
a short paragraph about how they use copper and zinc;
experiments to illustrate the effects of acid mine drainage;
and analyze videos and newspaper articles;
their own songs, raps, or poems about mining in Wisconsin;
the solution to the Crandon Mine controversy;
a letter to the editor stating their point of view about the
Crandon Mine controversy.
by asking the students if they have heard about the Crandon
mine controversy and what they already know.
2. On a
blank map of Wisconsin, have students locate the Crandon Mine,
labeling nearby political and physical features. Here are two
maps of the region: map1
the students make a timeline of the history of mining in Wisconsin
with a focus on the area around the Crandon mine. It is interesting
to note that people have been mining in Northern Wisconsin for
thousands of years. Native Americans mined copper and early
European settlers mined copper, lead, iron, and zinc.
a brief overview of current mining in Wisconsin. Useful information
students to the plant and animal life and geological history
of the Crandon region. The DNR website has information and photographs.
Crandon mine would have been a source of copper and zinc. Give
the students information about the common uses of copper and
zinc. For example, copper is commonly used in electric cables
and wires, plumbing, heating, roofing and zinc is used in paint,
rubber, and auto parts. Students should write a short paragraph
about how they use copper and zinc in their everyday lives.
Useful information on Copper
the effects of acid mine drainage by having the students conduct
a series of experiments using the following lesson plans: plan
2 & plan
videos that illustrate different perspectives on the mine debate.
To help them keep track of the players, use Student Handout
#2 (available in the pdf version of this unit).
Some possible videos to use for this activity are: Keepers
of the Water by Al Gedicks, Mining: Discoveries for Progress
produced by the National Mining Association, and Exxon's citizenship
video (available on their website). Some players include: Exxon,
Wisconsin Manufacturers and Commerce, the Sokaogon Chippewa,
the Menominee, the DNR, government officials, angling and hunting
organizations, conservation groups, tourists, and rural and
urban community members. For each video, conduct a class discussion
based on the following questions: Who produced the video? Why
do you think they produced this video? What facts did you learn?
What message does the video send? Do you think this is a fair
depiction of mining? Why or why not?
the students read and discuss newspaper articles about the Crandon
Mine Project. The Wisconsin State Journal and the Capital
Times have numerous archived articles online.
the students have a general understanding of the controversy,
bring in speakers representing different perspectives. Have
the students compile a list of questions for each speaker.
the students listen to songs from The River Rocks, a
collection of music stories about Wisconsin's environment. Additionally,
provide examples of socially conscious rap and poetry. Then,
have the students write their own songs, raps, or poems about
mining in Wisconsin and perform them for the class.
environmental issue was solved when the Native American groups
bought the Crandon Mine Project and associated lands in order
to protect them. Have the students discuss the following questions
in small groups: What motivated the individual or group in this
story to take action? What types of action did they undertake?
What barriers and challenges did they face? How did they overcome
these barriers? Do you know stories where people faced a similar
challenge? (From Pennock, M. & L. Bardwell. 1994. Approaching
Environmental Issues in the Classroom. University of Michigan.
p. 53). Have the students use Student Handout #3 (available in the pdf version of this unit) to evaluate the solution. Bring the
students attention to the fact that though the region around
the proposed Crandon Mine is protected we have not decreased
our consumption of copper and zinc. Ask the students where they
think this copper and zinc is mined.
the students read newspaper editorials about the Crandon Mine.
Some examples include: Spencer Black's "Power of the People
Prevails to Protect the Wolf River," and Peter O'Connor's "Mine's
Demise Impoverishes County." Then have the students draft a
letter to the editor expressing their support or opposition
to the solution to the Crandon Mine controversy.
S. "Power of the People Prevails to Protect the Wolf River,"
Capital Times. November 10, 2003.
D. and Z. Grossman. "Crandon
Mine Victory in Wisconsin Won By A Historic Alliance."
in Wisconsin." National Mining Association. 2003.
P. "Mine's Demise Impoverishes County." Wisconsin State Journal.
November 10, 2003.
Water Action Council
Of interest are "Corporate Citizenship" and the citizenship
Describes minerals and their uses
Has historical and cultural information
Department of Natural Resources
information about mines in Wisconsin as well as information
about the Crandon
Information about the history of mining in Wisconsin
Manufacturers and Commerce
Resources Protection Council
Capital Times and Wisconsin State Journal Archives
the Ground Up, 40 minutes, 1992 by Rob Danielson, Professor
of Film at UW-Milwaukee.
This video focuses on the economic and environmental impacts
of mining in Northern Wisconsin. It discusses perspectives
of business-owners, sportsmen, tourists, biologists, geologists,
and economists. Video may be borrowed from the Wisconsin
Center for Environmental Education (WCEE).
of the Water, 38 min., 1996, by Al Gedicks, Professor
of Sociology at UW-La Crosse.
Film chronicles the Crandon Mine controversy. Video may be
borrowed from the Wisconsin
Center for Environmental Education (WCEE).
Discoveries for Progress, 10 min., an overview of mining
produced by the National Mining Association. Video may be
borrowed from the Wisconsin
Center for Environmental Education (WCEE).
River Rocks produced by the Wolf/Fox Rivers Environmental
CD contains 40 minutes of music stories about Wisconsin's
environment. The songs may also be listened
Crandon mine site: here
Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo (DRC) is a large country located in central
Africa. The DRC has a wealth of natural resources, including
valuable minerals, yet it remains one of the world's poorest
countries. Exploitation of the region's mineral wealth dates
back to colonial times. The DRC has been involved in armed conflict
for many years. The most recent conflict has been called Africa's
world war -- involving seven countries and costing more than 5 million lives to date (2009). Most of the victims
have been civilians who have died of violence, starvation, and
disease. Many experts claim that this has primarily been a fight
over natural resources. A report by Global Witness (2005) stated,
"This conflict has been fuelled by the (mainly) illicit trade
in natural resources. During the war, numerous rebel groups
funded their occupation of eastern DRC through the exploitation
of minerals, such as diamonds, coltan, and cassiterite (tin
ore)" (p. 4). The conflict officially ended in 2003 with peace
accords in Sun City, South Africa, and the setting up of a transitional government
led by President Joseph Kabila. However,
militia groups in the east continue to fight for control of
region's gold, coltan, tin, and diamond mines.
mineral mined in the region is coltan (short for columbo-tantalite).
Large quantities of coltan are found in the eastern DRC. The
DRC holds 64% of the world's coltan reserves though it is not
the largest producer. Coltan is refined to produce tantalum
-- a heat resistant powder that can hold a high electrical charge.
Tantalum is used in capacitors in small electronic devices such
as cell phones, laptops, and video game consoles.
In the DRC,
coltan is mined using artisanal methods -- labor-intensive mining
done by individuals instead of machines. To mine coltan, workers
dig large holes in streambeds, gather a combination of water,
mud, and minerals in washtubs, and stir the mixture around so
the coltan settles at the bottom. In Congolese terms, coltan
mining may pay quite well. The average Congolese worker makes
$10/month and a
coltan miner can make anywhere from $10-$50 a week. However,
some mines are controlled by military groups, and soldiers sometimes
illegally tax miners to supplement their low and erratic incomes.
a convoluted global path from ore to electronic product, making
it impossible for consumers to know if their products are helping
to fuel the conflict. After it is mined, large amounts of coltan
are smuggled to Rwanda, meaning a loss for the DRC's economy
(Global Witness, 2005, p. 8). From Rwanda or the DRC, the coltan
travels to various countries to be processed into tantalum powder.
The tantalum powder is bought by companies that make tantalum
capacitors, and then sold to electronics companies to produce
cell phones, laptops, andvideo game consoles. (For a detailed explanation
of the path of tantalum and companies involved see: Hayes, K.
and R. Burge. Coltan
Mining in the Democratic Republic of Congo: How Tantalum-suing
Industries Can Commit to the Reconstruction of the DRC).
It may be difficult for many companies to be certain of the
origin of this coltan. Kemet, an American company and the world's
largest maker of tantalum capacitors, has asked suppliers to
certify that their coltan doesn't come from the DRC or bordering
demand and prices for coltan increased, driven by growth in
the electronics sector. Military groups in the DRC took advantage
of this to fund their occupation of the eastern provinces and continue
the civil war. In addition to numerous human rights abuses,
environmental damage occurred, including deforestation, pollution
of waterways, and the killing of endangered species. Large areas
of forests were cleared in the DRC's national parks for mining
and gorillas were killed for food for the miners. People left
their farms for more lucrative mining jobs, so there have been
food shortages. People resorted to eating 'bush meat.' In Kahuzi
Biega National Park, the gorilla population decreased by about
half. In 2001, the price of coltan fell and demand for the mineral
decreased. Since then, the price of coltan has remained low.
Japan and Western Europe implemented environmental regulations
that forced manufacturers to use tin instead of lead in circuit
boards since lead has been found to be dangerous for human health
and the environment. This new regulation caused the price of
tin to triple, leading tin to replace coltan as the 'mineral
of choice' in the eastern DRC (Global Witness, 2005, p. 8).
Tin ore is often found with coltan and they can both be mined
using artisanal methods. Much like coltan, large quantities
of tin are reportedly being smuggled into Rwanda. Tin from the
DRC is being bought by foreign companies and then ends up on
the international market. Like coltan, tin is found in common
electronics, but consumers cannot trace its origin.
how and where electronic items are produced;
a basic understanding of coltan;
the political and physical features of the DRC;
a topic about the DRC and do a short presentation;
a timeline of the history of mining in the DRC;
the journey of coltan/tantalum from a mine in the DRC to a
store in their town;
and analyze news stories and a photo essay;
a viewpoint in a role-playing format.
the students the following questions: How many of you have a
video game console, cell phone, or laptop computer in your home? Where
do you think the item came from? Where do you think its various
parts came from? Have the students choose a video game console, cell
phone, or laptop computer and do some research as to where the
item is produced, where its various components are produced,
and where the materials to make its components are produced.
Next, on a large map of the world, have the students mark where
their item came from. Finally, have them summarize the results
in a chart or graph.
the students with basic information about coltan and an overview
of coltan mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
Be sure to explain its connection with cell phones, laptops,
and video game concoles. Useful resources: Tantalum
3. On a
blank map of the DRC, have students label the political and
physical features. Students could also use websites, an atlas,
or social studies textbook to find these features. Free
students into groups, have each group research a topic about
the DRC: geography, people, government, and economy. Then, have
each group do a short presentation with a visual aid while the
other students take notes.
the students make a timeline of the history of mining in the
DRC and compare it with the timeline they made for the history
of mining in Wisconsin. What are the similarities and differences?
6. On a
map, have the students trace the journey of coltan/tantalum
from a mine in the DRC to a store in your town. For more information,
see the Coltan
Mining in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Have the students list the numerous players involved
in this environmental issue. Use Student Handout #2 (available in the pdf version of this unit).
the students listen to NPR News Story, "Radio
Expeditions: Coltan Mining and Eastern Congo's Gorillas,"
May 2, 2001. Before beginning the story have the students locate
Kahuzi Biega National Park on a map. Use the story to introduce
the environmental impacts of coltan mining and civil war, including
deforestation, pollution of waterways, and killing of endangered
species such as gorillas. After the news story, ask the students
the following questions: Do you agree with the Swiss biologist's
suggestion that if you buy a cell phone you are supporting actions
that lead to killing gorillas? Why or why not? Do you agree
with the argument that local people need to earn money? What
responsibility do consumers, mining companies, processing companies,
and cell phone companies have for the situation in the DRC?
What power does the reporter suggest that consumers have to
affect change? Why do you think the reporter chose to focus
on gorillas and elephants instead of the Congolese people killed
in the civil war?
the students watch "Congo's
Tin Soldiers," Video News Report, Channel 4, filmed at Bisie
Cassiterite Mine in eastern DRC in June 2005. After viewing
the news report, lead a class discussion about it. Some suggestions
for questions are: How did the clip make you feel? What do you
think can be done about the situation in the DRC? What responsibility
do corporations and consumers have in the conflict? What are
some things that might improve the situation? Add to Student
Handout #2 if any new players arise.
photojournalist Roger Lemoyne has created a photo
story of gold mining in the DRC. Have the students view
the images and note their observations. Lead a class discussion
about the photos.
week have a group of students present the latest news from the
DRC to the class. Helpful
Have students participate in a class simulation about what should
be done about the situation in the DRC.
the students brainstorm solutions to the mining issue in the
out Global Witness' Report "Under-Mining Peace" p. 5-7 (or
summarize these points in a form more easily readable by the
kids). Have the students compare Global Witness' solutions
with their own.
the students into small groups each representing the key players
in the debate. Some key players include: Congolese mine workers,
FARDC (national army) soldiers, Congolese government officials,
leaders from the United Nation's mission to the DRC (MONUC),
executives from mining companies, tantalum processing companies,
and electronics companies, representatives from human rights
or environmental groups or other non-governmental organizations,
and American consumers.
the students research their position and develop their arguments.
the students present and discuss "in character" in an international
summit style debate. During the debate have students fill
in Student Handout #2 (available in the pdf version of this unit).
the simulation have students step out of character and discuss
which arguments they find most compelling. As a class make
a list of possible solutions. Some suggestions that might
improve the situation in the DRC are: reduce consumption,
recycle, have consumers put pressure on corporations to stop
buying conflict ore, increase international pressure on Rwandan
governments, ensure that miners and soldiers get a fair wage,
increase international support to develop mining techniques
that do less damage to the environment, increase international
support of new Congolese government, etc.
the students deliberate and decide which solutions would work
best. Have the students rank the solutions and discuss criteria
that are guiding their choices. Have students come to a consensus
for what they see as the best solutions and make a class list.
the students brainstorm ways they can take action to enact
their solutions. (For more information on general environmental
action strategies see Hungerford, H. et al. 2003. Investigating
and Evaluating Environmental Issues and Action: Skill Development
Program. Stipes Publishing.) Some ways of taking action
might include: educating the school and community about the
issue, writing letters to government officials or electronics
companies, or boycotting specific products.
students write a persuasive essay about their solution.
Phones Fuel Congo Conflict." Teacher's E-Zine to the Digital
Gorillas, and Cell Phones." Cellular News.
Democratic Republic: Cell Phones, Forest Destruction, and
Death." World Rainforest Movement. 2003.
J. and T. Raeymaekers. Eds. M. Herman, B. Delen, and P. Vermaerke.
the War Economy in the DRC: European Companies and the Coltan
Trade." International Peace Information Service.
Exploitation, the Arms Trade and Human Rights Abuses."
Amnesty International. 2005.
K. and R. Burge. 2003. "Coltan
Mining in the Democratic Republic of Congo: How Tantalum-suing
Industries Can Commit to the Reconstruction of the DRC."
Fauna & Flora International.
Position on Illegally Mined Coltan"
and Ruin: The devastating Mineral Trade in Southern Katanga,
DRC." Global Witness. 2004.
Peace: The Explosive Trade in Cassiterite in Eastern DRC."
Global Witness. 2005.
for coltan mining in the DRC from MONUC
Africa Current news stories from Africa
The World Factbook
Fossey Gorilla Fund International
& Flora International
Describes minerals and their uses
(United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Mission de l'ONU au Congo)
Site has numerous maps, background information, and current
International Study Center
Curriculum from Michigan State University aimed at middle
and high school
Tin Soldiers, Video News Report, Channel 4, filmed at
Bisie Cassiterite Mine in eastern DRC in June 2005
Expeditions: Coltan Mining and Eastern Congo's Gorillas,
May 2, 2001, about 8 minutes
Canadian photojournalist, Roger Lemoyne, photo
story of gold mining in the DRC.
information learned throughout the unit using a Venn Diagram;
and present a list of guidelines for nations to follow for
a list of solutions to the mining debate and take action to
enact one solution.
Student Handout #4 (available in the pdf version of this unit), have the students compare and contrast the
Crandon Mine controversy with the current mining situation in
students combine what they have learned about mining in Wisconsin
and the DRC by creating a list of guidelines for nations to
follow when mining. Review the solution for the Crandon Mine
controversy and the solutions proposed by the students for the
DRC mining controversy. How would the students use these solutions
and apply them on a global scale?
the students read the relevant parts of the following documents
as examples of appeals and declarations about general environmental
Appeal to World Leaders, Rio 1992. This document
was produced at the United Nations Conference on Environment
and Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. It came
out of the Children’s Hearing conducted by the Voice of
Children International Campaign, a Norwegian youth organization.
small groups, have students discuss the following questions:
What similarities and differences do you notice among the
documents? Who is the audience and what is the purpose of
each document? In your opinion, what are the most important
demands in each document? What would you add or remove from
the Children's Appeal to World Leaders as a guide,
have students create their own appeal to world leaders for
international mining guidelines. These guidelines should ensure
environmental sustainability (Goal 7 of the UN Millennium
Development Goals), as well as social and economic sustainability.
Have the students deliberate in small groups and reach an
agreement. Have the students evaluate their solutions using
Student Handout #3 (available in the pdf version of this unit). Have students write these guidelines in
rough draft form.
their final draft, have students create colorful posters listing
group should present to the class imagining that they are
presenting to the United Nations.
students create presentations for other classes or for a school
assembly. The students should design a rubric for what would make
a good presentation. Then, have them evaluate themselves and each
other. The teacher should assess them as well.
students write a persuasive essay.
World Ecosystems Beyond Borders
Global Studies Outreach, UW-Madison
Last updated by: Mark L Lilleleht, July 2009
Created by: Bianca
Sonnenberg, December 2005
|Mark L Lilleleht
301 Ingraham Hall
1155 Observatory Drive
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison WI 53706